First World War Project
Home News - February 1915
The Western Front "stabilised" from January 1915 to the end of 1916 but fighting continued throughout the period, with some particularly large and hard-fought battles, intended to make a breakthrough. Many of these "breakthrough" battles have become part of the language of the First World War. See map - clickable. The conflict now straddled the globe where the European Empires touched. Increasingly, the Home Front news also included accounts of naval battles around the globe, lost naval and merchant ships, and submarine attacks and losses.
Thankfully, the Kingsdown with Creekside Benefice suffered no losses during February 1915. This may, in part, be due to the relatively static position along the Western Front and the randomness of actions seen by military units as each side probed for local tactical advantage from trench to trench. The regular exchange of artillery shelling and sniping took its toll along the whole Front.
This was also the period during which the "Race to the Sea" took place. Both sides needed to secure their northern flanks and ensure that access to the sea remained open (or closed, depending on your view-point). For British forces, this was of acute importance as any food and other essentials available locally were fast disappearing. The passage of shipping was also crucially important to Britain and the Commonwealth.
Children to work on the Farms. The realisation that we were "in it for the long haul" led to more frequent debates locally and nationally about the shortage of farm-workers because so many had volunteered to serve in the new territorial formations ("the Colours"). Calls to allow children of school age (12 years old or more) to work on farms gained some ground. Debates also included the question of the role of women and, more worryingly, the (lack of) protection for women and their children when the breadwinner signed up. There were cases reported to the House of Commons where women and children were being evicted from tied cottages - one case quoted in Parliament came from Goodnestone (near Ashford). In Lynsted, matters come to a head with a Parish Council meeting minute later in the year in October seeking freedom to use child labour as the rural workers "Joined the Colours".
This period also saw calls in the House of Commons for information regarding disease, illness, and occupational injury that included frostbite (a report of 17th February pointed to a total of 9,175 cases up to 24th January). Measures were to be put in hand to improve the soldiers' lots with waterproofs, etc.)
Shortage of Farm Labour - School children and women - 'turn a blind eye'
|South Eastern Gazette of 2nd February 1915|
CHILDREN ON FARMS. The deficiency of labour for farming purposes was considered at a meeting of the Council of the Central and Associated Chambers of Agriculture [Maidstone], held at the Surveyors' institution on Tuesday. The Business Committee presented a report stating that a letter had been received from the board of Agriculture, in which it was intimated that the Board were satisfied that the deficiency of farm labour had become very serious in certain districts, if not throughout the country generally, and that the time had arrived when farmers must take concerted action to deal with the situation, if they were to carry on their business with profit to themselves and in the interests of the nation. The Board suggested the formation of a committee in each country.
If you want to read more on this topic - we have collected additional material here.
Theft of property from wounded soldiers
|The Times of 5th February 1915|
House of Commons Debate: "WOUNDED SOLDIERS' LOSSES. Mr H. BAKER (Accrington, Minister) informed COLONEL WARDE (Kent, Medway. Opposition) that the question of the constant loss of kits, money, and private property of soldiers, taken from them when wounded, was under consideration, and orders had been issued with a view to preventing such losses. But when a soldier arrived in a hospital wounded the first consideration was his wounds, and when the pressure was great it might not always be possible to make sure that no irregularities took place."
War Brings a More Sober Society in Kent and Essex
|The Times of 6th February 1915|
ENGLAND IN TIME OF WAR TIME. XXV.-KENT AND ESSEX. - THE CHANGES IN SOCIAL HABITS. (FROM OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT.)
RUM INSTEAD OF BEER.
Another result of the war, interesting socially as well as economically, is that the agricultural and artisan classes in many parts of the country are giving up beer and taking to rum. This is not, as some might suppose, in patriotic imitation of Thomas Atkins at the front; it is the natural result of the war-tax on beer. Your beer-drinker, especially in rural districts, does not lightly regard the disturbance of his established order. In Kent, he declares that beer has never been worth 3d. a pint and that it is not worth it now. He shows the courage of his convictions by spending his accustomed 2d. on rum, and professes himself none the worse for the arrangement. Consequently the maltster's trade suffers and the average brewer's output has been reduced by 30 to 40 per cent. Here again we find several interesting consequences following on this increase of the beer tax, which brewers say levies a total revenue of £5 10s. upon every quarter of barley, worth 34s. One is the notable impulse given to the "home brewing" of ale for private consumption, which, in its turn, means less hours at the public house and for many a working man more in his own home. Another is that the supply of "brewers' grains," one of the staple foods of dairy cattle in Essex, has been reduced to an extent which necessitates increased imports of maize, rice bran, and other foodstuffs from abroad.
DARKNESS AND BUSINESS.
Interesting too, both in their social and the economic aspects, are the results of the various street and shop lighting ordinances, imposed by order of the military authorities and by the police, along the seacoast and in the inland towns of Essex and Kent. The general disposition of all classes is to comply promptly. But the British yeoman, even at the height of his patriotism, is never disposed to surrender absolutely his right of private judgment in question which affect "the ordinary avocations of life and the enjoyment of property." He knows that these, according to the wording of the Act, "will be interfered with as little as may be permitted by the exigencies of the measures required for securing the public safety and the defence of the Realm," and, looking at the matter dispassionately, he thinks and says that many of the regulations fail to fulfil that reasonable promise. In districts which (so far as it is given to the plain man to understand these things) are neither defended ports nor "proclaimed areas" many doubt the legality of these measures, as imposed by order of the military authorities, having regard to the wording of Regulation 7A of the Defence of the Realm Act, and to the fact that the existing published Order of the Secretary framed under that Regulation refers solely to the Metropolitan District of London. The question is not likely to be raised, because the great body of the public intends, come what may, to support constituted authority in all thinks, even though there may be serious doubts as to the intelligence which lurking somewhere in Whitehall directs its activities."
Royal Garrison Artillery (Sheerness) soldiers on leave slow to return to their units
Hansard Report on House of Commons Debate on 8th February 1915 (vol 69 c242 242)
§ 70. Mr. GOLDSTONE asked the Under-Secretary for War whether certain men of the Royal Garrison Artillery at present stationed at Garrison Point Fort, Sheerness, have been refused the leave of absence promised some time ago; whether he will state what is the reason for this refusal; and whether men concerning whom no complaint has been made are being penalised because of the failure of a few of their comrades to return to duty at the expiration of their leave of absence?
§ Mr. TENNANT - The men were divided into batches for the purpose of Christmas leave. Almost all of the first batch overstayed their leave three or four days. In consequence of this the second batch were warned, but they also overstayed their leave. As a result of this disregard of orders, all leave was stopped except in the case of those men who had passed their drills.
Licensing - Annual Reports (Faversham & Teynham)
|South Eastern Gazette of 9th February 2015|
FAVERSHAM BOROUGH - The annual Licensing Sessions for Faversham Borough were held on Wednesday, the Mayor, Dr. A.K. Alexander, presiding. Supt. Lawrence reported that the whole of the licensed houses (42) had been satisfactorily conducted during the past year. The number of persons proceeded against for drunkenness was 32, showing an increase of 10. Six were residents and 26 non-residents; 24 were convicted. (For the last ten years the average number proceeded against was 60).- The Magistrates renewed the whole of the licenses.
FAVERSHAM COUNTY. The annual Licensing Sessions for the Faversham County Petty Sessional Division were held on Thursday, Lord Harris (chairman) presiding. Supt. Lawrence reported that there were 52 licensed houses, which had been satisfactorily conducted with one exception, viz,. the Teynham Arms [on the site of today's fish and chip shop, Crispins], in which case there had since been a change of tenant. The number of persons proceeded against for drunkenness was 15, an increase of three compared with the previous year. Of this number 11 males and two females were convicted. Only two were residents. The Chairman congratulated the licensees on the satisfactory conduct of their houses and also paid a high tribute to the behaviour of the military located in the district. The licenses were all renewed with the exception of that of an un-licensed beerhouse at Teynham, which will be considered at the adjourned meeting on March 4th.
Charitable support for local Hospitals
It is a sobering fact that hospital care before the National Health Service was largely dependent upon charitable support - this was not just a war-time occurrence. So, Teynham and Lynsted singers threw in their lot ...
|South Eastern Gazette of 9th February 1915|
|TEYNHAM AND LYNSTED CAROL SINGERS. The Teynham and Lynsted Carol Singers have forwarded a cheque for £17 9s. 6d. To the Faversham Cottage Hospital as a result of their Christmas effort.|
"Shell shock" starting to come to public notice (and sent to Lancashire)
INVALID SOLDIERS (NERVE STRAIN). House of Commons Debate: 11th February 1915 [vol 69 c722 722]
§ 74. Mr. DUNCAN MILLAR - asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether the Red Cross military hospital which has been opened in Lancashire for the reception of uncertifiable soldiers suffering from nerve strain is solely under War Office control, or whether it is visited by Lunacy Commissioners and under lunacy administration?
§ Mr. TENNANT The hospital referred to is an exclusively military hospital, and the reception, care, and discharge of the soldiers admitted are under the sole control of the War Office. The soldiers are not certified and are not under lunacy jurisdiction. The premises, however, are the property of the Board of Control, and some members of the board visit the institution from time to time in order to supervise such matters as supplies, heating, repairs, and the maintenance of the premises, but they in no way concern themselves with the treatment of the patients.
[Society Note: Located in Moss-Side, this hospital had 500 beds for the most protracted cases only - the first admission was on 21st December 1914. Officers were housed separately.]
Luddenham links - Soldier Promoted ... and survived WW1
|Dover Express of 12th February 1915|
This son of a clergyman distinguished himself and lived through the war. "Mr. J.E.S. [John Eric Sidney] Green, M.A., and Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, son of the Rev. S. F. and Mrs. Green, late of Charlton, and now at Luddenham, near Faversham, was some little time ago granted a commission in the 15th Battalion of the Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own). He has now been promoted captain."
[Society Note: 30th October 1915 his father resigned from Luddenham on the grounds that the place was TOO DAMP!]
Voluntary Training Corps Marches on Greenstreet
|Kent Messenger of 20th February 1915|
|The Sittingbourne Voluntary Training Corps, despite the inclement weather, had a march-out to the village of Greenstreet on Wednesday evening [17th February], for the purpose of assisting in forming a new corps at that place. The Commandant (Mr. W.S. Cowper) was in charge, and on arrival the President (Brigadier-General P.D. Jeffreys) inspected the men. Afterwards a meeting was held, at which the speakers were the General, Mr. Cowper, Mr A.A. Richards (Secretary of the Sittingbourne Corps), Mr. P.D. Selby, and latter's son, Lieut. Selby, R.N., of H.M.S. Lion, who came in for a great reception. As a result of the meeting a section of the Sittingbourne Corps will be formed at Greenstreet, and staff-sergeants of the Dublin Fusiliers will undertake the training, as at Sittingbourne.|
Soldiers' Wives (Evictions).
House of Commons Debate on 17 February 1915 vol 69 c1126
§ 59. Mr. ANDERSON - asked the Prime Minister whether his attention has been drawn to ejectment proceedings at Newport Pagnell petty sessions against Frederick Tysoe, an agricultural labourer, now fighting in the trenches in France; whether he is aware that the man's wife, about to be confined, is to be turned out with three young children; whether he is aware that the number of such cases is increasing; whether he has read the proceedings of the Shrewsbury branch of the Farmers' Union where the president encouraged farmers to eject the wives of enlisted men if cottages were needed for other workmen; and whether steps will be taken to put a stop to these evictions of soldiers' wives?
§ The PRIME MINISTER - I have no information regarding the particular case to which the Hon. Member refers. But the general question is not free from difficulty, especially in view of the importance of maintaining the supplies of agricultural produce, and will receive careful consideration.
This debate recurred on 23rd February 1915
NEW COURTS (EMERGENCY POWERS) ACT.
HC Deb 23 February 1915 vol 70 cc165-6 165
§ 23. Mr. ANDERSON - asked the Prime Minister whether his attention has been drawn to the legal case in which a jury at Dorchester, under the New Courts (Emergency Powers) Act, awarded £15 damages for trespass and wrongful eviction to William West, a farm labourer, now serving with the Colours; whether he is aware that much uncertainty exists among farmers and the wives of men who have enlisted as to the legal position in regard to ejectment; and whether, in view of the seriousness and complexity of the problem, the scarcity of rural cottages, the natural desire of the farmers to obtain and house labourers in place of those who have left, and the consequent danger of eviction of the wives and children of soldiers, he will grant time for discussion of the matter?
§ Sir H. VERNEY - The Government will welcome suggestions for preventing hardship arising in cases of the kind quoted by the hon. Member. Perhaps it will be convenient if, in the first instance, the question were debated on the Motion for the Adjournment.
In the same sitting.......
ADJOURNMENT DEBATE: EVICTION OF SOLDIERS' WIVES.
Child Labour in War Time. - The Shortage of Adult Labour in Agricultural Districts. - Discussion at Tunbridge Wells Farmers' Club
|Kent & Sussex Courier of 19th February 1915|
|[A common topic of concern across Kent] At the weekly meeting of the Tunbridge Wells Farmers' Club on Friday evening (Mr. G.E. Davison presiding), there was an interesting discussion on the question of the employment of boys on farms during war time, owing to the shortage of adult labour, which has resulted from enlistment. The discussion arose out of the report of the recent meeting of the Central Chamber of Agriculture.
Commenting on the report, Mr. PARRIS said there was no doubt that the question of shortage of labour was one that would become increasingly difficult as the war went on. He pointed out that even if local education authorities were disposed to exempt boys of 12 years of age from attendance at school in order that they might go to work on farms, it was questionable whether it could done under the existing law. Of course, he went on, there were faddists who were entirely opposed to children being taken away from school at 12 years of age and put to work, but they did not realise that we were passing through a very great crisis, in which any kind of labour on farms would be of great use to the community. It would be a great benefit to girls in the future if they could be taught milking and other light duties on farms and so replace man's labour. It was not a question of the farmers getting cheap labour, but of getting any labour at all.
Mr. O.T. CORKE was strongly averse to the use of child labour as suggested. He thought children of 12 would be of very little use on farms. The age between 12 and 14 was when a child learned most. The children would suffer for the rest of their lives if this step in the wrong direction were taken.
Mr. E. LE MAY said one would think they were suggesting that the employment of child labour should be a permanent affair. They were suggesting it as much in the interest of the children themselves as of the people as a whole. The community must be supplied with food. At present we were able to keep the avenues of our food supply open, but did not know how long that would be so. The first duty of every country was to provide food for its people. The country would have to make greater sacrifices before the war was over than the children were being asked to make now. If farmers said that the labour of children over 12 years of age would be useful they must have it. He pointed out that there was no suggestion that a boy of 12 should be compelled to work on a farm. E would only do so if fit and willing.
Mr. G. DAVISON, senr., endorsed these remarks, and said much useful light work might be done on farms by lads of 12 or 13 years of age. The food of the nation was the first consideration.
Mr. W.T. TEMPLER said that while he agreed that the food supply must be maintained, he was in sympathy with Mr. Corke's opinion that the children's education should not be interfered with. In view of the unexampled crisis, he thought some arrangement might be made whereby children might work on farms without their education being materially neglected. No doubt the interests of the children needed carefully safeguarding.
Mr. E. LE MAY moved the following resolution: "In view of the fact that the production of food is the first consideration in the crisis in the affairs of the country, and on account of the shortage of labour in agricultural districts, children of 12 years of age and upwards should be excused attendance at school if they can be employed on the land."
Mr. A. COSHAM seconded, and also suggested that women might do more work on the land.
Mr. R.W. DENYER said he was extremely surprised that at a time like the present the Tunbridge Wells Farmers' Club should devote their attention to such a small matter. It was in truth a "childish" question. There were much more important matters to be dealt with, and the question of child labour on farms was not worth of that Club. They were proposing to take away the best part of a child's life, and there was no reason for doing so.
The resolution was carried with some dissentients.
New Officers from Norton
|Faversham and North East Kent News of 20th February 1915|
|KENT HEAVY BATTERY. NEW OFFICERS. Mr. E.J. Howard, son of Captain John Howard, R.N., of Rushett, Norton, has been gazetted a 2nd Lieutenant in the Kent Heavy Battery (TF) He is the second officer the Battery has gained recently from Norton, Mr. A.F. Rickards, of Norton Court, having been gazetted 2nd Lieutenant a few weeks back.
Although he has been serving now for some little time we have not previously mentioned that Captain Arthur Neame is also an officer in the Kent Heavy Battery. Captain Neame, formerly, of course, held a commission in the old Faversham Volunteer Corps.
Kent Education Committee. Children and Farm Work. Interesting Discussion
|South Eastern Gazette of 23rd February 1915|
At the monthly meeting of the Kent Education Committee held at the Sessions House yesterday (Monday, 22nd), Mr. W. Berry (chairman) presiding the Elementary Education sub-Committee reported that they had before them in December past a resolution from the Sevenoaks Branch of the National Farmer's Union, requesting that children should be granted exemption from school attendance after their twelfth birthday for employment for agricultural purposes during the period of the war. The Committee then informed the applicants that, while sympathising with the object in view they could not see their way to adopt the proposal. Similar requests or suggestions have been received from other quarters. In the case of the Hoo Guardians the following letter had been received:-
The Sub-Committee, while they earnestly deprecate the withdrawal from school of children under fourteen years of age, otherwise than in accordance with the by-laws, feel that the demand for child labour cannot but increase, and that the matter is one which calls for the early attention of the Committee. So far as they have discussed the matter the sub-committee are of opinion that no relaxation in the enforcement of the by-laws in order to allow of the extended employment of children should be made before the approach of summer, and that if any be then made it should be accompanied with a condition that any child released for employment must work only under the supervision of its parent or some other approved guardian.
CHILDREN AND FARM WORK.
The Chairman moved the adoption of the report.
Mr. Tapp enquired if this was an amendment to the Committee's report, but Lord Northbourne said he did not intend it to be. He considered it was a matter of urgency, an he would, if necessary, move that the Standing Orders be suspended.
Boy Labour on Farms. Education Board and Local Authorities
|South Eastern Gazette of 23rd February 1915|
A White Paper issued by the Board of Education shows the extent of the movement in rural areas for the exemption from school of boys below leaving age, in order that they may be put to work on the land and remedy the shortage of labour caused by the war. The Board has been in communication with the County Councils or Education Authorities in Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, Kent, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, West Sussex, and Pontypridd.
The Board hope that Magistrates will not refuse to go into the merits of summonses for non-attendance.
24th February 1915 - Charles Barling Enlisted
Service No. G/13013 in the 2/1 Royal Kent Mounted Rifles, attested 24th February 1915 at Sittingbourne. Witnessed by Frank F Boucher. Home address, Moss House, Greenstreet.
Apparent age 19 years and 2 months [the minimum age for service overseas]. 5 feet, 8 inches height. Chest 34" with 1.5 inches expansion. Both eyes good with good overall physical development.
Service Record: Posted and embodied as Private and posted to Base Depot in France on 21st September 1916. Transfered to the 4th Battalion, then to the 7th Battalion on 11th October 1916. Posted to 'Depot' on 16th April 1918, then again on 18th July 1918. Disembodied on Demobilization to Cherry Gardens, Greenstreet, Sittingbourne. "Very Good" character.
When in the 7th Battalion "C Company", suffered a bullet wound to the left lung (25% degree of disability), being admitted to Portsmouth Hospital on 16th April 1918 and granted furlough from 9th to 18th July 1918. Afterwards marked fit for duty at the 11th Company Depot. He was awarded the "Protection Certificate and Certificate of Identity (Soldier not remaining with the colours)." These certificates were awarded to avoid unfound accusations of cowardice. His weekly pension was five shillings and sixpence (reviewed annually).
He was awarded the British War & Victory Medals.
Teynham postman - letters from the Front
|Kent Messenger of 27th February 1915|
|CORPORAL W. BRADFORD, D.C.M. Corpl. W. Bradford, of the 2nd Highland Light Infantry, was, when the war broke out, a postman at Teynham, having previously served seven years with the Colours. He is, however, a Canterbury man, and his younger brother is with the Kent Cyclist Corps. Writing to his young lady at Snodland, the Corporal tells in modest terms of some of his experiences. At the battle of Mons he was in the trenches for 62 hours at a stretch, under heavy fire, but it is, we believe, for work done on November 14th, then the Germans were defeated near Ypres, that he has, more especially, been awarded the coveted honour. He had a very narrow escape then when on patrol duty, and, later, nearly the whole of a trench from which he was firing was blown up by shell fire. He was bruised by the fall of earth, and the three men next to him were blown to pieces. The two officers were also killed. "My Company Sergeant-Major," he writes, "has also been awarded the D.C.M. All the men - 13 in all - who were left in the trench with me have congratulated me - saying I saved their lives by making them hold the position under an artillery fire which was nothing more nor less than murderous. I am proud to say that my regiment has not lost an inch of ground during the whole of the war. We have got officers whom anyone should be proud of, and I am sorry that so many of our young promising ones have been killed.|
ARTEFACTS - Background Records...................
GERMANS ATTACK WITH FIRE BOMBS.
PARIS, Tuesday, Feb. 9. The following communiqués were issued to-day:—
No event of importance has been reported. In the afternoon of yesterday we exploded in front of Fay, south-west of Péronne, a mine gallery
we reoccupied a mill in which the enemy had succeeded in installing himself.
Soissons has been bombarded with incendiary projectiles. Along the whole of the Aisne front and in Champagne our artillery effectively countered the German batteries.
In the Argonne the struggle begun around Bagatelle developed in one of the thickest parts of the forest, and consequently assumed a somewhat confused character. As a whole the respective fronts have been maintained on both sides.
The forces engaged on Sunday did not exceed three to four battalions on each side. In the course of yesterday only one of our battalions was fighting.
In Lorraine and in the Vosges mere were artillery engagements.—Reuter.
where some soldiers of the enemy were working.
In Belgium there was an intermittent artillery duet. Ypres and Furnes were bombarded. The Belgian artillery destroyed a farm, the defenders of which fled along the Bethune—La Bassee road.
BOROUGH EDUCATION COMMITTEE. IRREGULAR ATTENDANCE AT SCHOOLS. A SERIOUS POSITION.
|Kent & Sussex Courier of 26th February|
Archdeacon A.T. Scott presided at the monthly meeting of the Borough Education Committee, which was held at the Town Hall on Monday afternoon.
The School attendance Sub-Committee reported on investigations made into the question of the irregular attendance of children at some of the local elementary schools. The School Medical Officer reported to the Sub-Committee that he had examined 1,060 children during the past year, and that 1.9 per cent of this number had been excluded from school. The Sub-Committee expressed the opinion that these figures were very satisfactory. The return of average attendance presented by the Town Clerk (Mr. W.C. Cripps) showed percentages varying from 82.6 to 86.7 from December 18th to January 22nd. Warnings were issued to 34 parents.
THE FEEDING OF SCHOOL CHILDREN.
The Tunbridge Wells Workers' War Emergency committee wrote asking the Committee to exercise their powers to feed hungry school children in the town. They were given to understand some time ago that there was no need for this action, but children were being fed at the present time by private charity, so obviously the need existed. Moreover, the private charity was in need of funds.
KENT EDUCATION COMMITTEE - AGRICULTURE AND CHILD LABOUR - ELEMENTARY EDUCATION.
"The Committee, in December last, had before them a resolution from the Sevenoaks Branch of the National Farmers' Union requesting that children should be granted exemption from school attendances after their twelfth birthday for employment for agricultural purposes during the period of the war, and the Committee then informed the applicants that, while sympathising with the object in view, they could not see their way to adopt the proposal. Similar requests or suggestions had been received from other quarters. The Hoo Board of Guardians hoped that the matter might be reconsidered. "They think that the Committee, in declining to act as desired, scarcely seem to appreciate the serious position of matters. The potato planting season is coming on, and the women who have usually done the work appear to be in such good circumstance through payments derived from the State that they do not now care to work." Upon this the Sub-Committee remarked that while they earnestly deprecated the withdrawal from school of children under fourteen years of age otherwise than in accordance with the bye-laws, they felt that the demand for child labour could not but increase, and that the matter was one which called for the early attention of the Committee. So far as they had discussed the matter the Sub-Committee were of opinion that no relaxation in the enforcement of the bye-laws in order to allow of the extended employment of children should be made before the approach of summer, and that if any be then made it should be accompanied with a condition that any child released from employment must work only under the supervision of its parents or some other approved guardian.
------------------ [IN THE SAME EDITION]
TONBRIDGE PETTY SESSIONS. TUESDAY.- Before Mr. C.W. Powell (Chairman), Alderman F.E. East, Mr. W. Baldwin, Mr. A.F.W.Johnson, Mr. A.J. Isard, Mr. G. Paine and Mr. F.D. Draper.